Joseph Suarez Yilun Du Phillip Isola Igor Mordatch
The emergence of complex life on Earth is of- ten attributed to the arms race that ensued from a huge number of organisms all competing for finite resources. We present an artificial intelligence re- search environment, inspired by the human game genre of MMORPGs (Massively Multiplayer On- line Role-Playing Games, a.k.a. MMOs), that aims to simulate this setting in microcosm. As with MMORPGs and the real world alike, our environment is persistent and supports a large and variable number of agents. Our environment is well suited to the study of large-scale multiagent interaction: it requires that agents learn robust combat and navigation policies in the presence of large populations attempting to do the same. Baseline experiments reveal that population size magnifies and incentivizes the development of skillful behaviors and results in agents that out- compete agents trained in smaller populations. We further show that the policies of agents with unshared weights naturally diverge to fill different niches in order to avoid competition.
Life on Earth can be viewed as a massive multiagent competition. The cheetah evolves an aerodynamic profile in order to catch the gazelle, the gazelle develops springy legs to run even faster: species have evolved ever new capabilities in order to outcompete their adversaries. The success of biological evolution has inspired many attempts at creating “artificial life” in silico.
In recent years, the field of deep reinforcement learning (RL) has embraced a related approach: train agents by having them compete in simulated games (Silver et al., 2016; OpenAI, 2018; Jaderberg et al., 2018). Such games are immediately interpretable and provide easy metrics derived from the game’s “score” and win conditions. However, popular game benchmarks typically define a narrow, episodic task with a small fixed number of players. In contrast, life on Earth involves a persistent environment, an unbounded number of players, and a seeming “open-endedness”, where ever new and more complex species emerge over time, with no end in sight (Stanley et al., 2017).
Our aim is to develop a simulation platform (see Figure 1) that captures important properties of life on Earth, while also borrowing from the interpretability and abstractions of human-designed games. To this end, we turn to the game genre of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs, or MMOs for short). These games involve a large, variable number of players competing to survive and prosper in persistent and far-flung environments. Our platform simulates a “Neural MMO” – an MMO in which each agent is a neural net that learns to survive using RL.
We demonstrate the capabilities of this platform through a series of experiments that investigate emergent complexity as a function of the number of agents and species that compete in the simulation. We find that large populations act as competitive pressure that encourages exploration of the environment and the development of skillful behavior. In addition, we find that when agents are organized into species (share policy parameters), each species naturally diverges from the others to occupy its own behavioral niche. Upon publication, we will opensource the platform in full.
2. Background and Related Work
Artificial Life and Multiagent Reinforcement Learning Research in “Artificial life” aims to model evolution and natural selection in biological life; (Langton, 1997; Ficici & Pollack, 1998). Such projects often consider open-ended skill learning (Yaeger, 1994) and general morphology evo- lution (Sims, 1994) as primary objectives. Similar problems have recently resurfaced within multiagent reinforcement learning where the continual co-adaptation of agents can introduce additional nonstationarity that is not present in single agent environments. While there have been multiple attempts to formalize the surrounding theory (Herna´ndez- Orallo et al., 2011; Strannegrd et al., 2018), we primarily consider environment-driven works. These typically con- sider either complex tasks with 2-10 agents (Bansal et al., 2017; OpenAI, 2018; Jaderberg et al., 2018) or much simpler environments with tens to upwards of a million agents
(Lowe et al., 2017; Mordatch & Abbeel, 2017; Bansal et al., 2017; Lanctot et al., 2017; Yang et al., 2018a; Zheng et al., 2017; Jaderberg et al., 2018). Most such works further focus on learning a specific dynamic, such as predator-prey Yang et al. (2018b) or are more concerned with the study than the learning of behavior, and use hard-coded rewards Zheng et al. (2017). In contrast, our work focuses on large agent populations in complex environments.
Game Platforms for Intelligent Agents The Arcade Learning Environment (ALE) (Bellemare et al., 2013) and Gym Retro (Nichol et al., 2018) provide 1000+ limited scope arcade games most often used to test individual re- search ideas or generality across many games. Better performance at a large random subset of games is a reasonable metric of quality. However, recent results have brought into question the overall complexity each individual environment (Cuccu et al., 2018), and strong performance in such tasks is not particularly difficult for humans.
More recent work has demonstrated success on multiplayer games including Go (Silver et al., 2016), the Multiplayer On- line Battle Arena (MOBA) game DOTA2 (OpenAI, 2018), and Quake 3 Capture the Flag (Jaderberg et al., 2018). Each of these projects has advanced our understanding of a class of algorithms. However, these games are limited to 2-12 players, are episodic, with game rounds on the order of an hour, lack persistence, and lack the game mechanics sup- porting large persistent populations – there is still a large gap in environment complexity compared to the real world.
Role-playing games (RPGs) such as Pokemon and Final Fantasy, are in-depth experiences designed to engage human players for hundreds of hours of persistent gameplay. Like the real world, problems in RPGs have many valid solutions and choices have long term consequences.
MMORPGs are the (massively) multiplayer analogs to RPGs. They are typically run across several persistent servers, each of which contains a copy of the environment and supports hundreds to millions of concurrent players. Good MMOs require increasingly clever, team-driven usage of the game systems: players attain the complex skills and knowledge required for the hardest challenges only through a curriculum of content spanning hundreds of hours of game- play. Such a curriculum is present in many game genres, but only MMOs contextualize it within persistent social and economic structures approaching the scale of the real world.
3. Neural MMO
We present a persistent and massively multiagent environment that defines foraging and combat systems over pro- cedurally generated maps. The Supplement provides full
environment details and Figure 2 shows a snapshot. The core features are support for a large and variable number of agents, procedural generation of tile-based terrain, a food and water foraging system, a strategic combat system, and inbuilt visualization tools for analyzing learned policies
Agents (players) may join any of several servers (environment instances). Each server contains an automatically generated tile-based environment of configurable size. Some tiles, such as food-bearing forest tiles and grass tiles, are traversable. Others, such as water and solid stone, are not. Upon joining a server, agents spawn at a random location along the edges of the environment. In order remain healthy (maintain their health statistic), agents must obtain food and water – they die upon reaching reaching 0 health. At each server tick (time step), agents may move one tile and make an attack. Stepping on a forest tile or next to a water tile refills a portion of the agent’s food or water supply, respectively. However, forest tiles have a limited supply of food; once exhausted, food has a 2.5 percent chance to regenerate each tick. This means that agents must compete for food tiles while periodically refilling their water supply from in- finite water tiles. They may attack each other using any of three attack options, each with different damage values and tradeoffs. Precise foraging and combat mechanics are detailed in the Supplement.
Agents observe local game state and decide on an action each game tick. The environment does not make any further assumptions on the source of that decision, be it a neural network or a hardcoded algorithm. We have tested the environment with up to 100 million agent trajectories (lifetimes) on 100 cores in 1 week. Real and virtual worlds alike are open-ended tasks where complexity arises with little
direction. Our environment is designed as such. Instead of rewarding agents for achieving particular objectives optimize only for survival time: they receive reward rt = 1 for each time step alive. Competition for finite resources mandates that agents must learn intelligent strategies for gathering food and water in order to survive.
One purpose of the platform is to discover game mechanics that support complex behavior and agent populations that can learn to make use of them. In human MMOs, developers aim to create balanced mechanics while players aim to maximize their skill in utilizing them. The initial configurations of our systems are the results of several iterations of balancing, but are by no means fixed: every numeric parameter presented is editable within a simple configuration file.
4. Architecture and Training
Agents are controlled by policies parameterized by neural networks. Agents make observations ot of the game state st and follow a policy π(ot) → at in order to make actions at. We maximize a return function R over trajectory τ = (ot, at, rt, …, oT , aT , rT ). This is a discounted sum of survival rewards: R(τ ) = LT γtrt where γ = 0.99, T is the time at death and the survival reward rt equals 1, as motivated previously. The policy π may be different for each agent or shared. Algorithm 1 shows high level training logic. The Supplement details the tile-based game state st and hyperparameters (Table 1).
Input We set the observation state ot equal to the crop of tiles within a fixed L1 distance of the current agent. This includes tile terrain types and the select properties (such as health, food, water, and position) of occupying agents. Our choice of ot is an equivalent representation of what a human sees on the screen, but our environment supports other choices as well. Note that computing observations does not require rendering.
Output Agents output action choices at for the next time step (game tick). Actions consist of one movement and one attack. Movement options are: North, South, East, West, and Pass (no movement). Attack options are labeled: Melee, Range, and Mage, with each attack option applying a specific preset amount of damage at a preset effective distance. The environment will attempt to execute both actions. Invalid actions, (e.g. moving into stone), are ignored.
Our policy architecture preprocesses the local environment by embedding it and flattening it into a single fixed length vector. We then apply a linear layer followed by linear output heads for movement and attack decisions. New types of action choices can be included by adding additional heads. We also train a value function to estimate the discounted return. As agents receive only a stream of reward 1, this is equal to a discounted estimate of the agent’s time until death. We use a value function baselines policy gradient loss and optimize with Adam. It was possible to obtain good performance without discounting, but training was less stable. We provide full details in the supplements.
We present an initial series of experiments using our plat- form to explore multiagent interactions in large populations. We find that agent competence scales with population size. In particular, increasing the maximum number of con- current players (Nent) magnifies exploration and increasing the maximum number of populations with unshared weights (Npop) magnifies niche formation. Agents policies are sampled uniformly from a number of “populations” π ∼ π1, . . . , πN . Agents in different populations have the same architecture but do not share weights.
Technical details We run each experiment using 100 worlds. We define a constant C over the set of worlds W . For each world w ∈ W , we uniformly sample a c ∈ (1, 2, …C). We define ”spawn cap” such that if world w has a spawn cap c, the number of agents in w cannot exceed c. In each
world w, one agent is spawned per game tick provided that doing so would exceed the spawn cap c of w. To match standard MMOs, we would fix Nent = Npop (humans are independent networks with unshared weights). However, this incurs sample complexity proportional to number of populations. We therefore share parameters across groups of up to 16 agents for efficiency.
5.1. Server Merge Tournaments
We perform four experiments to evaluate the effects on foraging performance of training with larger populations and with a greater number of populations. For each experiment, we fix Npop ∈ (1, 2, 4, 8) and a spawn cap (the maximum number of concurrent agents) c = 16 × Npop, such that c ∈ (16, 32, 64, 128). We train for a fixed number of trajectories per population.
Evaluating the influence of these variables is nontrivial. The task difficulty is highly dependent on the size and com- petence of populations in the environment: mean agent lifetime is not comparable across experiments. Furthermore, there is no standard procedure among MMOs for evaluating relative player competence across multiple servers. However, MMO servers sometimes undergo merges whereby the player bases from multiple servers are placed within a single server. As such, we propose tournament style evaluation in order to directly compare policies learned in different experiment settings. Tournaments are formed by simply concatenating the player bases of each experiment. Figure 3 shows results: we vary the maximum number of agents at test time and find that agents trained in larger settings consistently outperform agents trained in smaller settings.
We observe more interesting policies once we introduce the combat module as an additional learnable mode of variation on top of foraging. With combat, agent actions be- come strongly coupled with the states of other agents. As a sanity check, we also confirm that all of the populations trained with combat handily outperform all of the populations trained with only foraging, when these populations compete in a tournament with combat enabled.
To better understand theses results, we decouple our analysis into two modes of variability: maximum number of concurrent players (Nent) and maximum number of populations with unshared weights (Npop). This allows us to examine the effects of each factor independently. In order to isolate the effects of environment randomization, which also encourages exploration, we perform these experiments on a fixed map. Isolating the effects of these variables pro- duces more immediately obvious results, discussed in the following two subsections:
5.2. Nent: Multiagent Magnifies Exploration
In the natural world, competition between animals can incentivize them to spread out in order to avoid conflict. We observe that overall exploration (map coverage) increases as the number of concurrent agents increases (see Figure 4; the map used is shown in Figure 5). Agents learn to explore only because the presence of other agents provides a natural incentive for doing so.
5.3. Npop: Multiagent Magnifies Niche Formation
We find that, given a sufficiently large and resource-rich environment, different populations of agents tend to separate to avoid competing with other populations. Both MMOs and the real world often reward masters of a single craft more than jacks of all trades. From Figure 5, specialization to particular regions of the map increases as number of populations increases. This suggests that the presence of other populations force agents to discover a single advantageous skill or trick. That is, increasing the number of populations results in diversification to separable regions of the map. As entities cannot out-compete other agents of their own population (i.e. agent’s with whom they share weights), they tend to seek areas of the map that contain enough resources to sustain their population.
5.4. Environment Randomized Exploration
The trend of increasing exploration with increasing entity number is clear when training on a single map as seen in Figure 4, 5, but it is more subtle with environment randomization. From Figure 6, all population sizes explore adequately. It is likely that “exploration” as defined by map coverage is not as difficult a problem, in our environment, as developing robust policies. As demonstrated by the Tournament experiments, smaller populations learn brittle policies that do not generalize to scenarios with more competitive pressure–even against a similar number of agents.
5.5. Agent-Agent Dependencies
We visualize agent-agent dependencies in Figure 7. We fix an agent at the center of a hypothetical map crop. For each position visible to that agent, we show what the value function would be if there were a second agent at that position. We find that agents learn policies dependent on those of other agents, in both the foraging and combat environments.
6.1. Multiagent competition is a curriculum magnifier
Not all games are created equal. Some produce more com- plex and engaging play than others. It is unreasonable to expect pure multiagent competition to produce diverse and interesting behavior if the environment does not support it. This is because multiagent competition is a curriculum magnifier, not a curriculum in and of itself. The initial conditions for formation of intelligent life are of paramount importance. Jungle climates produce more biodiversity than deserts. Deserts produce more biodiversity than the tallest mountain peaks. To current knowledge, Earth is the only planet to produce life at all. The same holds true in simulation: human MMOs mirror this phenomenon. Those most successful garner large and dedicated player bases and develop into complex ecosystems. The multiagent setting is interesting because learning is responsive to the competitive and collaborative pressures of other learning agents–but the environment must support and facilitate such pressures in order for multiagent interaction to drive complexity.
There is room for debate as to the theoretical simplest possible seed environment required to produce complexity on par with that of the real world. However, this is not our objective. We have chosen to model our environment after MMOs, even though they may be more complicated than the minimum required environment class, because they are known to support the types of interactions we are interested in while maintaining engineering and implementation feasibility. This is not true of any other class environments we are aware of: exact physical simulations are computationally in- feasible, and previously studied genres of human games lack crucial elements of complexity (see Background). While some may see our efforts as cherrypicking environment design, we believe this is precisely the objective: the primary goal of game development is to create complex and engaging play at the level of human intelligence. The player base then uses these design decisions to create strategies far beyond the imagination of the developers.
6.2. Additional Insights
We briefly detail several miscellaneous points of interest in Figure 8. First, we visualize learned attack patterns of agents. Each time an agent attacks, we splat the attack type to the screen. There are a few valid strategies as per the environment. Melee is intentionally overpowered, as a sanity check. This cautions agents to keep their distance, as the first to strike wins. We find that this behavior is learned from observation of the policies learned in Figure 8.
Second, a note on tournaments. We equate number of trajectories trained upon as a fairest possible metric of training progress. We experimented with normalizing batch size but found that larger batch size always leads to more stable performance. Batch size is held constant, but experience is split among species. This means that experiments with more species have smaller effective batch size: larger populations outperform smaller populations even though the latter are easier to train.
Finally, a quick note on niche formation. Obtaining clean visuals is dependent on having an environment where inter- action with other agents is unfavorable. While we ensure this is the case for our exploration metrics, niche formation may also occur elsewhere, such as in the space of effective combat policies. For this reason, we expect our environment to be well suited to methods that encourage sample diversity such as population-based training (Jaderberg et al., 2017).
Our final set of experiments prescribes targeting to the agent with lowest health. Learned targeting was not required to produce compelling policies: agents instead learn effective attack style selection, strafing and engaging opportunistically at the edge of their attack radius. Another possible experiment is to jointly learn attack style selection and targeting. This would require an attentional mechanism to handle the variable number of visible targets. We performed only preliminary experiments with such an architecture, but we still mention them here because even noisy learned targeting policies significantly alter agent-agent dependence maps. As shown in Figure 7, the small square shaped regions of high value at the center of the dependency maps correspond to the ranges of different attack styles. These appear responsive to the current combat policies of other learning agents. We believe that the learned targeting setting is likely to useful for investigating the effects of concurrent learning in large populations.
We have presented a neural MMO as a research platform for multiagent learning. Our environment supports a large number of concurrent agents, inbuilt map randomization, and detailed foraging and combat systems. The included baseline experiments demonstrate our platform’s capacity for research purposes. We find that population size magnifies exploration in our setting, and the number of distinct species magnifies niche formation. It is our hope that our environment provides an effective venue for multiagent experiments, including studies of niche formation, emergent cooperation, and coevolution. The entire platform will be open sourced, including a performant 3D client and research visualization toolbox. Full technical details of the platform are available in the Supplement.
This research was undertaken in fulfillment of an intern- ship at OpenAI. Thank you to Clare Zhu for substantial contributions to the 3D client code.
Bansal, T., Pachocki, J., Sidor, S., Sutskever, I., and Mor- datch, I. Emergent complexity via multi-agent competi- tion. arXiv preprint arXiv:1710.03748, 2017.
Bellemare, M. G., Naddaf, Y., Veness, J., and Bowling, M. The arcade learning environment: An evaluation plat- form for general agents. Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research, 47:253–279, 2013.
Cuccu, G., Togelius, J., and Cudre-Mauroux, P. Playing atari with six neurons. arXiv preprint arXiv:1806.01363, 2018.
Ficici, S. G. and Pollack, J. B. Challenges in coevolution- ary learning: Arms-race dynamics, open-endedness, and mediocre stable states. In Proceedings of the sixth inter- national conference on Artificial life, pp. 238–247. MIT Press, 1998.
Herna´ndez-Orallo, J., Dowe, D. L., Espan˜a-Cubillo, S., Herna´ndez-Lloreda, M. V., and Insa-Cabrera, J. On more realistic environment distributions for defining, evaluat- ing and developing intelligence. In International Con- ference on Artificial General Intelligence, pp. 82–91. Springer, 2011.
Jaderberg, M., Dalibard, V., Osindero, S., Czarnecki, W. M., Donahue, J., Razavi, A., Vinyals, O., Green, T., Dunning, I., Simonyan, K., et al. Population based training of neural networks. arXiv preprint arXiv:1711.09846, 2017.
Lanctot, M., Zambaldi, V., Gruslys, A., Lazaridou, A., Per- olat, J., Silver, D., Graepel, T., et al. A unified game- theoretic approach to multiagent reinforcement learning. In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems,
pp. 4190–4203, 2017.
J. Gotta learn fast: A new benchmark for generalization in rl. arXiv preprint arXiv:1804.03720, 2018.
Perlin, K. An image synthesizer. SIGGRAPH Com- put. Graph., 19(3):287–296, July 1985. ISSN 0097- 8930. doi: 10.1145/325165.325247. URL http:
Silver, D., Huang, A., Maddison, C. J., Guez, A., Sifre, L., Van Den Driessche, G., Schrittwieser, J., Antonoglou, I., Panneershelvam, V., Lanctot, M., et al. Mastering the game of go with deep neural networks and tree search. nature, 529(7587):484, 2016.
Stanley, K. O., Lehman, J., and Soros, L. Open- endedness: The last grand challenge youve never heard of. https://www.oreilly.com/ideas/
Williams, R. J. Simple statistical gradient-following algo- rithms for connectionist reinforcement learning. Machine learning, 8(3-4):229–256, 1992.
Yaeger, L. Computational genetics, physiology, metabolism, neural systems, learning, vision, and behavior or poly world: Life in a new context. In SANTA FE INSTI- TUTE STUDIES IN THE SCIENCES OF COMPLEXITY- PROCEEDINGS VOLUME-, volume 17, pp. 263–263. ADDISON-WESLEY PUBLISHING CO, 1994.
Yang, Y., Luo, R., Li, M., Zhou, M., Zhang, W., and Wang,
J. Mean field multi-agent reinforcement learning. arXiv preprint arXiv:1802.05438, 2018a.
Yang, Y., Yu, L., Bai, Y., Wen, Y., Zhang, W., and Wang,
J. A study of ai population dynamics with million-agent reinforcement learning. In Proceedings of the 17th Inter- national Conference on Autonomous Agents and MultiA- gent Systems, pp. 2133–2135. International Foundation for Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, 2018b.
Zheng, L., Yang, J., Cai, H., Zhang, W., Wang, J., and Yu,
Y. Magent: A many-agent reinforcement learning plat- form for artificial collective intelligence. arXiv preprint arXiv:1712.00600, 2017.
open-endedness-the-last-grand-challenge-youve-never-heard-of, 2017. Accessed: 2017-09-26.
Strannegrd, C., Svangrd, N., Lindstrm, D., Bach, J., and Steunebrink, B. Learning and decision-making in artifi- cial animals. Journal of Artificial General Intelligence, 9: 55–82, 07 2018. doi: 10.2478/jagi-2018-0002.
Neural MMO Supplement
The environment state is represented by a grid of tiles. We generate the game map by thresholding a Perlin (Perlin, 1985) ridge fractal, as shown in Figure 9. Each tile has a particular assigned material with various properties, but it also maintains a set of references to all occupying entities. When agents observe their local environment, they are handed a crop of all visible game tiles, including all visible properties of the tile material and all visible properties of occupying agents. All parameters in the following subsystems are configurable; we provide only sane defaults obtained via multiple iterations of balancing.
We adopt a tile based game state, which is common among MMOs. This design choice is computationally efficient for neural agents and can be made natural for human players via animation smoothing. When there is no need to render the game client, as in during training or test time statistical tests, the environment can be run with no limit on server tick rate. Game tiles are as follows:
- Grass: Passable tile with no special properties
- Forest: Passable tile containing food. Upon moving into a food tile, the agent gains 5 food and the tile decays into a scrub.
- Scrub: Passable tile that has a 2.5 percent probability to regenerate into a forest tile on each subsequent tick
- Stone: Impassible tile with no special properties
- Water: Passable tile containing water. Upon moving adjacent to a water tile, the agent gains 5 water.
- Lava: Passable tile that kills the agent upon contact
Input: On each game tick, agents (Figure 10) observe a 15×15 square crop of surrounding game tiles and all occupying agents. We extract the following observable properties:
- Material: an index corresponding to the tile type
- nEnts: The number of occupying entities. This is technically learnable from the list of agents, but this may not be true for all architectures. We include it for convenience here, but may deprecate it in the future.
- Lifetime: Number of game ticks alive thus far
- Health: Agents die at 0 health (hp)
- Food: Agents begin taking damage at 0 food or water
- Water: Agents begin taking damage at 0 food or water
- Position: Row and column of the agent
- Position Deltas: Offsets from the agent to the observer
- Damage: Most recent amount of damage taken
- Same Color: Whether the agent is the same color (and thereby is in the same population) as the observer
- Freeze: Whether the agent is frozen in place as a result of having been hit by a mage attack
Output: Agents submit one movement and one attack action request per server tick. The server ignores any actions that are not possible or permissible to fulfil, such as attacking an agent that is already dead or attempting to move into stone. Pass corresponds to no movement.
Movement: North South East West Pass
Attack: Melee Range Mage
Foraging (Figure 11) implements gathering based survival:
- Food: Agents begin with 32 food, decremented by 1 per tick. Agents may regain food by occupying forest tiles or by making use of the combat system.
- Water: Agents begin with 32 water, decremented by 1 per tick. Agents may regain water by occupying tiles adjacent to water or making use of the combat system.
- Health: Agents begin with 10 health. If the agent hits 0 food, they lose 1 health per tick. If the agent hits 0 water, they lose 1 health per tick. These effects stack.
The limited availability of forest (food) tiles produces a carrying capacity. This incurs an arms race of exploration strategies: survival is trivial with a single agent, but it re- quires intelligent exploration in the presence of competing agents attempting to do the same.
Combat (Figure 12) enables direct agent-agent confrontation by implementing three different attack ”styles”:
- Melee: Inflicts 10 damage at 1 range
- Ranged: Inflicts 2 damage at 1-2 range
- Mage: Inflicts 1 damage at 1-3 range and freezes the target in place, preventing movement for two ticks
Each point of damage inflicted steals one point of food and water from the target and returns it to the attacker. This serves as an incentive to engage in combat. It is still fully possible for agents to develop primarily foraging based strategies, but they must at least be able to defend them- selves. The combat styles defined impose clear but difficult to optimize trade offs. Melee combat fells the target in one attack, but only if they are able to make their attack before the opponent retaliates in kind. Ranged combat produces less risky but more prolonged conflicts. Mage combat does little damage but immobilizes the target, which allows the attacker to retreat in favor of a foraging based strategy. More
aggressive agents can use mage combat to immobilize their target before closing in for the kill. In all cases, the best strategy is not obvious, again imposing an arms race.
- Attack range is defined by l1 distance: ”1 range” is a 3X3 grid centered on the attacker.
- Spawn Killing Agents are immune during their first 15 game ticks alive. This prevents an exploit known as ”spawn killing” whereby players are repeatedly at- tacked immediately upon entering the game. Human games often contain similar mechanism to prevent this strategy, as it results in uninteresting play.
The initial release is bundled with two APIs for running experiments on our platform. All of our experiments are RL based, but the API implementation is intentionally generic. Evolutionary methods and algorithmic baselines should work without modification.
Gym Wrapper We provide a minimal extension of the Gym VecEnv API (Brockman et al., 2016) that adds support for variable numbers of agents per world and at any given time. This API distributes environment computation of ob- servations and centralizes training and inference. While this standardization is convenient, MMOs differ significantly from arcade games, which are easier to standardize under a single wrapper. The Neural MMO setting requires support for a large, variable number of agents that run concurrently, with aggregation across many randomly generated environments. The Gym API incurs additional communications overhead that the native API bypasses.
Native This is the simplest and most efficient interface. It pins the environment and agents on it to the same CPU core. Full trajectories run locally on the same core as the environment. Interprocess communication is only required infrequently to synchronize gradients across all environments on a master core. We currently do the backwards pass on the same CPU cores because our networks are small, but GPU is fully supported.
The environment visualizer comes bundled with research tools for analyzing agent policies. In the initial release, we provide both a 2D python client (Figure 13) and a 3D web client (Figure 14, 16). The 3D client has the best support for visualizing agent policies. The 2D client is already deprecated; we include it only because it will likely take a few weeks to fully finish porting all of the research tools. We include visualization tools for producing the following visualization maps; additional documentation is available on the project Github:
- Value ghosting
- Interagent dependence
Policy training and architecture
Parameters relevant to policy training are listed in Table 1. The neural net architecture, shown in Figure 15, is a simplest possible fully connected network. It consists of a preprocessor, main network, and output heads. The preprocessor is as follows:
- Embed indicies corresponding to each tile into a 7D vector. Also concatenates with the number of occupying entities.
- Flatten the tile embeddings
- Project visible attributes of nearby entities to 32D
- Max pool over entity embeddings to handle variable number of observations
- Concatenate the tile embeddings with the pooled entity embeddings
- Return the resultant embedding
The main network is a single linear layer. The output heads are also each linear layers; they map the output hidden vector from the main network to the movement and combat action spaces, respectively. Separate softmaxes are used to sample movement and combat actions.
- For foraging experiments, the attack network is still present for convenience, but the chosen actions are ignored.
- Note that 1D max pooling is used to handle the variable number of visible entities. Attention (Bahdanau et al., 2014) may appear the more conventional approach,
Table 1. Training details and parameters for all experiments
|Training Algorithm||Policy Gradients(Williams, 1992)||+ Value function baseline|
|Adam Parameters||lr=1e-3||Pytorch Defaults|
|Weight Decay||1e-5||Training stability is sensitive to this|
|Entropy Bonus||1e-2||To stabilize training; possibly redundant|
|Discount Factor||0.99||No additional trajectory postprocessing|